The real problem is reconciling free will with indeterminism.
The real problem is reconciling free will with indeterminism. The physical world is fundamentally undetermined, it began in chaos and remains chaotic and random at the atomic scale as well as some macroscopic regions of the cosmos. Even for large objects, the laws of physics are statistical laws.
We have known this since Ludwig Boltzmann's work in Statistical physics was brilliantly confirmed at the level of atomic collisions by Max Born inand by Werner Heisenberg inwith his quantum mechanical uncertainty principle.
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Unfortunately, antipathy Physics mark scheme chance led many prominent physicists, then and now, to deny indeterminism and cling to a necessitarian deterministic physics.
Biologists knew even earlier, from Charles Darwin 's work inthat chance was the driver for evolution and so chance must be a real part of the universe.
Indeed, it is known that quantum collisions of high-energy radiation with the macromolecules carrying genetic information create mutations that are a source of variation in the gene pool. Charles Sanders Peircestrongly influenced by Darwin, was the greatest philosopher to embrace chance, and he convinced his friend William James of it.
James described the role of chance in free will in his essay, The Dilemma of Determinism. Information philosophy has identified the cosmic creative processes we call them "ergodic" that can overcome the chaotic tendency of indeterministic atomic collisions and create macroscopic, information-rich, structures.
When these emergent structures are large enough, like the sun and planets, their motions become very well ordered and incredibly stable over time. DNA has maintained its informational stability for nearly four billion years by adding error detection and correction processes.
Early Greeks like Anaximander saw the universe as a "cosmos" and imagined laws of nature that would explain the cosmos.
Later the Stoic physicists identified these laws of nature with laws of God, proclaimed nature to be God, and said both were completely determined. For the Greeks, the heavens became the paradigm of perfection and orderly repetitive motions without change. The sublunary world was the realm of change and decay.
When, two thousand years later, Isaac Newton discovered apparently perfectly accurate dynamical laws of motion for the planets, he seemed to confirm a deterministic universe. But as Newton knew, and as Peirce and later Karl Popper were to argue, we never had observational evidence to support the presumed perfection.
The physical laws had become a dogma of determinism. Why is quantum uncertainty involved in the shaking together co-agitare of our agenda items, the real alternative possibilities for thought or action that allow us to say we "could have done otherwise?
Before quantum uncertainty, many philosophers, mathematicians, and statistical scientists argued that chance was just a name for our ignorance of underlying deterministic processes.
They denied the existence of real chance in the universe. As soon as quantum mechanics was established in the 's, first scientists and then philosophers began claiming that quantum indeterminism could explain free will.Online homework and grading tools for instructors and students that reinforce student learning through practice and instant feedback.
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Physics Csec Mark Scheme - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Search Search. MARK SCHEME – PHYSICS PAPER 2H – SPECIMEN MATERIAL 2of 22 Mark schemes are prepared by the Lead Assessment Writer and considered, together with the.
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