The response rate Some basic definitions In order to answer a particular research question, the researcher needs to investigate a particular area or group, to which the conclusions from the research will apply.
Basic Research Concepts Problem Recognition and Definition We understand the world by asking questions and searching for answers. Our construction of reality depends on the nature of our inquiry.
All research begins with a question. Intellectual curiosity is often the foundation for scholarly inquiry.
Some questions are not testable. The classic philosophical example is to ask, "How many angels can dance on the head of a pin? Prior to Descartes, this is precisely the kind of question that would engage the minds of learned men.
Their answers came from within. The scientific method precludes asking questions that cannot be empirically tested. If the angels cannot be observed or detected, the question is considered inappropriate for scholarly research.
Defining the goals and objectives of a research project is one of the most important steps in the research process. Do not underestimate the importance of this step. Clearly stated goals keep a research project focused. The process of goal definition usually begins by writing down the broad and general goals of the study.
As the process continues, the goals become more clearly defined and the research issues are narrowed. The literature review is especially important because it obviates the need to reinvent the wheel for every new research question.
The research question itself can be stated as a hypothesis. A hypothesis is simply the investigator's belief about a problem.
Typically, a researcher formulates an opinion during the literature review process. The process of reviewing other scholar's work often clarifies the theoretical issues associated with the research question.
It also can help to elucidate the significance of the issues to the research community. The hypothesis is converted into a null hypothesis in order to make it testable because the only way to test a hypothesis is to eliminate alternatives of the hypothesis.
Statistical techniques will enable us to reject or fail to reject a null hypothesis, but they do not provide us with a way to accept a hypothesis.
Therefore, all hypothesis testing is indirect. Creating the Research Design Defining a research problem provides a format for further investigation. A well-defined problem points to a method of investigation.
There is no one best method of research for all situations. Rather, there are a wide variety of techniques for the researcher to choose from. Often, the selection of a technique involves a series of trade-offs. For example, there is often a trade-off between cost and the quality of information obtained.
Time constraints sometimes force a trade-off with the overall research design. Budget and time constraints must always be considered as part of the design process. Methods of Research There are three basic methods of research: Each method has its advantages and disadvantages.
The survey is the most common method of gathering information in the social sciences. It can be a face-to-face interview, telephone, mail, e-mail, or web survey. A personal interview is one of the best methods obtaining personal, detailed, or in-depth information.Sampling may be done either a probability or a non-probability basis.
This is an important research design decision, and one which will depend on such factors as whether the theory behind the research is positivist or idealist, whether qualitative or quantitative methods are used etc.
Note that the two methods are not mutually exclusive, and may be used for different purposes at different. Volume 13, No. 1, Art. 30 – January Participatory Research Methods: A Methodological Approach in Motion.
Jarg Bergold & Stefan Thomas. Abstract: This article serves as an introduction to the FQS special issue "Participatory Qualitative Research." In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in participatory research strategies.
Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation.
Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling technique that is used by researchers to identify potential subjects in studies where subjects are hard to locate. Home Research. Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan.
Social research methodologies can be classified as quantitative and qualitative.. Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable.
Related Web links. The references and links on these pages have been collected and reviewed by Colin initiativeblog.com will be updated on a regular basis. Chapter links Click on the links below for websites giving further information on topics covered in each chapter of the book.
Most of these websites have been found by surfing the Web using Google.