Some Europeans argued that by colonizing Africa, they were also exporting civilization to a continent which they regarded as evolutionary backward and undeveloped. It was a European responsibility to act as trustees of Africa until Africans were mature enough to govern themselves. However, colonization was in reality driven by commercial interests. Europe would benefit enormously from its exploitation of Africa.
Some Europeans argued that by colonizing Africa, they were also exporting civilization to a continent which they regarded as evolutionary backward and undeveloped.
It was a European responsibility to act as trustees of Africa until Africans were mature enough to govern themselves. However, colonization was in reality driven by commercial interests. Europe would benefit enormously from its exploitation of Africa.
The de-colonization process would reveal the one-sidedness of colonial rule. The departing colonial powers left behind economies that were designed to benefit themselves.
Crops grown, for example, required processing in Europe. The departing powers left behind few Africans equipped to lead their newly independent nations.
Others argue that for all the injustices of colonialism, Africans have become members of a single global civilization characterized by "institutions and principles such as representative democracyjudiciary, banking" and "factories" and "Africans and other non-westerners have to master the new civilization to strengthen themselves and benefit from the advantages".
He failed however in locating the source of the Nile. The opening of Africa to Western exploration and exploitation had begun in earnest at the end of the eighteenth century. ByEuropeans had mapped most of northwestern Africa.
Among the most famous of the European explorers was David Livingstonewho charted the vast interior and Serpa Pinto, who crossed both Southern Africa and Central Africa on a difficult expedition, mapping much of the interior of the continent.
Arduous expeditions in the s and s by Richard Burton, John Speke and James Grant located the great central lakes and the source of the Nile. By the end of the century, Europeans had charted the Nile from its source, the courses of the NigerCongo and Zambezi Rivers had been traced, and the world now realized the vast resources of Africa.
However, on the eve of the scramble for Africa, only ten percent of the continent was under the control of Western nations. Technological advancement facilitated overseas expansionism.
Industrialization brought about rapid advancements in transportation and communication, especially in the forms of steam navigation, railroadsand telegraphs. Medical advances also were important, especially medicines for tropical diseases.
The development of quininean effective treatment for malaria, enabled vast expanses of the tropics to be penetrated. Britain, like most other industrial countries, had long since begun to run an unfavorable balance of trade which was increasingly offset, however, by the income from overseas investments.
Invisible financial exports, as mentioned, kept Britain out of the red, especially capital investments outside Europe, particularly to the developing and open markets in Africa, predominantly white settler colonies, the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asiaand Oceania. In addition, surplus capital was often more profitably invested overseas, where cheap labor, limited competition, and abundant raw materials made a greater premium possible.
Another inducement to imperialism, of course, arose from the demand for raw materials unavailable in Europe, especially coppercottonrubbertea, and tinto which European consumers had grown accustomed and upon which European industry had grown dependent.
However, in Africa — exclusive of what would become the Union of South Africa in — the amount of capital investment by Europeans was relatively small, compared to other continents, before and after the Berlin Conference.
These observations might detract from the pro-imperialist arguments of colonial lobbies such as the Alldeutscher Verband, Francesco Crispi or Jules Ferry, who argued that sheltered overseas markets in Africa would solve the problems of low prices and over-production caused by shrinking continental markets.Africa was left both psychologically and politically impoverished.
Much of it still is so. The result today is a continent of states stranded between its old ways and modernity. The "scramble for Africa" is also more accurately called the “Partition of Africa” or the “Conquest of Africa”. It refers to a period between the years and During this time, European countries occupied Africa and attempted to colonize it.
The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa or Partition of Africa was a process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between and World War I in As a result of the.
The Scramble for Africa (or the Race for Africa) was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New Imperialism period, between the s and the start of World War I.
Russia is engaged in a frantic new scramble for influence in Africa, which is being spearheaded by a rash of military cooperation and arms deals signed across the continent in The Scramble for Africa ( to ) was a period of rapid colonization of the African continent by European powers.
But it wouldn't have happened except for the particular economic, social, and military evolution Europe was going through. Before the Scramble for Africa: Europeans in Africa up to.