Discussion questions Describe how academic English differs from the English we use in everyday life. What are some misconceptions people might have about academic language development? Does your school have an effective, comprehensive academic language curriculum in place?
English[ edit ] This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. August Phillipson defines English linguistic imperialism as "the dominance of English His theory draws mainly on Johan Galtung 's imperialism theory, Antonio Gramsci 's social theory, and in particular on his notion of cultural hegemony.
A central theme of Phillipson's theory is the complex hegemonic processes[ clarification needed ] which, he asserts, continue to sustain the pre-eminence of English in the world today. His book analyzes the British Council 's use of rhetoric to promote English, and discusses key tenets of English applied linguistics and English-language-teaching methodology.
These tenets hold that: English is best taught monolingually "the monolingual fallacy" ; the ideal teacher is a native speaker "the native-speaker fallacy" ;[ clarification needed ] the earlier English is taught, the better the results "the early-start fallacy" ;[ clarification needed ] the more English is taught, the better the results "the maximum-exposure fallacy" ;[ clarification needed ] if other languages are used much, standards of English will drop "the subtractive fallacy".
According to Phillipson, those who promote English—organizations such as the British Council, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bankand individuals such as operators of English-language schools—use three types of argument: Intrinsic arguments describe the English language as providential, rich, noble and interesting.
Such arguments tend to assert what English is and what other languages are not. Extrinsic arguments point out that English is well-established: Functional arguments emphasize the usefulness of English as a gateway to the world. Other arguments for English are its economic utility: Another theme in Phillipson's work is " linguicism "—the species of prejudice that leads to endangered languages becoming extinct or losing their local eminence due to the rise and competing prominence of English.
Other languages[ edit ] InBlack school children in Soweto protested at being taught in Afrikaanswhich had been pushed by the Apartheid authorities concerned at the growing refusal of the Black population to speak it.
They reasoned that by only having access to Afrikaner resources the South African government could control them more closely than having access to a global language i.
The Uprising became a turning point in the overthrow of Apartheid years later.
At various times, especially in colonial settings or where a dominant culture has sought to unify a region under its control, a similar phenomenon has arisen.
In the Roman EmpireLatin —originally the language of a limited region in central Italy—was imposed first on the rest of Italy and later on large parts of Europe, largely displacing previous languages spoken there, while in Roman Africa Latin was merely dominant until it and the native languages were displaced by Arabization.
Anatolia was similarly diverse linguistically when it was ruled by small native states. Under the Persian and Hellenistic empiresthe language of the conqueror served as the lingua franca.
The indigenous Anatolian languages disappeared.teaching vocabulary learning strategies: awareness, beliefs, and practices. a survey of taiwanese efl senior high school teachers.
supervisor: dr. adela gánem. Teaching English as a Second Language Masters Thesis Collection. Follow. Theses/Dissertations from PDF. Educating Saudi Women through Communicative Language Teaching: A Bi-literacy Narrative and An Autoethnography of a Saudi English Teacher, Eiman Alamri.
PDF. This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a book. The digit and digit formats both work. initiativeblog.com provides a large and growing collection of English as a Second Language (ESL) tools & resources for students, teachers, learners and academics, covering the full spectrum of ESL, EFL, ESOL, and EAP subject areas.
Student» or Teacher» initiativeblog.com was . W elcome to the Journal of English as an International initiativeblog.com Journal of English as an International Language is a refereed publication which aims at providing on-line access to all those involved in the research, teaching and learning of English as an International language..
The Journal studies the structure and development of English across the globe, and in particular, its. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah