In human anatomy, the standard anatomical position is supine lying down face up. The legs are straight and together, or slightly separated. The arms are straight out along the torso with the palms of the hands upward.
Downward Communication[ edit ] In a workplace environment, orders being given from superiors to subordinates is the most basic form of downward communication. Two other forms of downward communication are when a customer gives orders to a supplier and when shareholders instruct management to do certain things.
This type of communication involves transmitting new information that will keep subordinates on the same page and mindset of their superiors, as well as the organization. This helps provide a direction for subordinates to take to help achieve organizational goals and targets.
Job instructions and rationale: The first purpose is to provide subordinates with what the organization would like to achieve or reach, while this second purpose is to help give subordinates a successful way to accomplish the tasks.
Coordinating both the individual goals and department goals, helps individuals understand their company's aspirations.
This type of communication includes the most basic conception of downward communication. Superiors communicate the company's prewritten policies, procedures, restrictions, and compensation packages. The overall purpose is to create a sense of expectations and requirements in the subordinate's mind.
The last purpose of downward communication is to communicate a sense of belonging to subordinates to promote them to become a part of the organization's culture. This may include motivating subordinates to attend special events that are sponsored by the organization.
Better coordination Improved individual performance through the development of intelligent participation Improved morale Improved consumer relations Improved industrial relations.
Upward Communication[ edit ] Upward communication is the process of transmitting information from the bottom levels of an organization to the top levels. It includes judgments, estimations, propositions, complaints, grievance, appeals, reports, etc.
It is very important because it serves as the response on the success of downward communication. Management comes to know how well its policies, plans, strategies and objectives are adopted by those working at lower levels of the organization.
When a manager is open to upward communication, they help foster cooperation, gain support, and reduce frustration. The channel of communication is a very significant variable in the upward communication process. Channel refers to the means of which messages are transported. It can be face-to-face, over the telephone, written, etc.
Communication channel affects subordinate's overall satisfaction with upward communication. Certain channels are easily ignored, which can leave subordinates less satisfied with upward communication. The most effective way to implement open communication is for management to engage in regular face-to-face conversations with employees in order to express their level of care for the work being done.
This line of open communication makes employees feel more comfortable disclosing any personal issues they are experiencing within the organization.
Openness in communication requires both openness in message sending and openness in message receiving between superiors and subordinates. Certain types of messages facilitate open communication better. Supervisory messages are preferable for both superiors and subordinates when they are encouraging or reciprocating, rather than responses that are either neutral or negative.
Openness in message receiving requires a willingness to listen to the message without jumping to conclusions even when the message is not what you wanted to hear. An open communication relationship differs from a closed by the reactions and types of feedback given, not the message itself.
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